Tractors[ edit ] Ford experimental tractor development, [ edit ] Henry Ford grew up in an extended family of farmers in Wayne County a few miles from Detroit , Michigan in the late 19th century. At the time, farm work was extremely arduous, because on the typical farm virtually nothing could get done without manual labour or animal labour as the motive power. As his interest in automobiles grew, he also expressed a desire to "lift the burden of farming from flesh and blood and place it on steel and motors. Four years after founding the Ford Motor Company in , Ford finished his first experimental tractor in on Woodward Avenue in Detroit, referring to it as the "Automobile Plow". In the early s, North America and Europe were hungry for small, inexpensive tractors, and many people seized on the Model T as a platform with which to create them. Clearly the idea of an auto-like tractor, made using auto-like parts and methods or by conversion from autos, was ripe.
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The "F" model was a common tractor used here in Australia, up until the end of WW Fordson of the UK exported to Australia, the sit up and beg Fordson major, a diesel version had the Perkins engine, there was the rare half track version, and the less rare the bulky looking crawler. The mid sixties saw the demise of the Fordson, tractors from about just used the word Ford as in the ford etc. From an engineering standpoint, the Fordson tractor differs, and possesses characteristics which distinguish it from others.
Specifications: Price f. Engine: Four-cylinder; cylinders cast en bloc; bore 4"; stroke 5"; extra large bearings throughout; all bearings burned in. Cooling: Thermo-syphon system; radiator is of vertical-tub type, and is cooled by a fan Fuel: Engine is started with gasoline from a two-quart gasoline tank; once started, the engine is operated by kerosene from gallon kerosene tank; fuel supplied by gravity feed.
Air washer: The air supply is drawn through water which removes all dust, thus reducing wear on the cylinder walls. Transmission: Constant mesh selective type, three speeds forward and one reverse; all shafts run on, ball bearings.
Clutch: Multiple disk, running in oil. Front axle Drop-forged and heat-treated; it is attached in the center directly to the front of the engine, giving three-point suspension to the tractor. Steering is through a bevel-gear sector and pinion, with a ball-end drop arm connecting through a large rod to the front axle cross-arm; system is fore-and-aft type.
Wheels: Front wheels have steel spokes cast in the hub and riveted to the rim. Rear axle: Semi-floating, four-pinion differential running on ball bearings. Belt pulley: Special fibre paper construction, does not require refacing, and prevents slipping of drive belt optional. Performance: Size of thresher 20" x 36"; plows, "; average work, 6 acres in 10 hours.
Turning circle: foot radius. Data Weights: Weight of tractor less driver, water, oil, and lugs, 2, lhs. Engine: L-head type with detachable cylinder head; 4 cylinders and 8 valves; firing order, 1, 2, 4, 3. Cooling: fan, 18" ball-bearing belt-driven; water capacity, 12 gal. Ignition: Current supplied by flywheel magneto; there are 16 magnets clamped to the flywheel which rotate behind the stationary armature; voltage of magneto varies with speed of engine; a high-tension coil is used; the timer and distributor commutator are fastened on the end of the cam shaft.
Carburetion: See description of Holley vaporizer , Air washer: Float type, 7-quart capacity. Clutch has 17 hardened disks running in oil; spring pressure ia lbs. Transmission gears: Speeds based on 1, r. Lubricant, heavy gear oil, capacity 4 gals. Worm: Of undermounted type; it has two threads it is made of chrome vanadium steel; the worm shaft is supported at the rear end by a duplex ball bearing which withstands both radial and end thrusts. Belt pulley: Width, 6 "; spiral-bevel gear drive from transmission drive shaft; belt speed, 2, It.
Energy is put into the tractor in the form of kerosene. The vaporizer and mixing chamber change this kerosene into a combustible gas by mixing it with clean, moist air from the air washer. The engine burns this gas and converts it into mechanical energy, causing a rotation of the crank shaft.
This power is passed through the clutch and is delivered to the transmission, where the speed of rotation is changed or the direction reversed. The power is then delivered to the worm drive, which further reduces the speed of rotation, and, by means of the rear axle shafts, turns the rear wheels, thus causing the motion of the tractor. The crank case, gear box, and axle housing serve as the frame of the machine. The engine is similar in design to that of the Ford model T", the main differences being as follows: 1.
The bore and stroke of the engine are greater than in the model "T. The water connections between the radiator and the water jacket are effected with iron connectors instead of with rubber hose, as in the model "T. The fan is larger, runs on ball bearings, and is supported by a bracket from the upper water connector, instead of from the cylinder block, as in the model "T.
There is no removable plate in the bottom of the crank case to permit access to the connecting rods, it being necessary to remove the entire crank case for this purpose. The ignition is similar to that of the Ford model "T". Carburetion is obtained by Holley vaporizer.
Transmission is for the purpose of driving the tractor at various speeds according to the class of work to be done. This device also permits the tractor to be reversed. These speed variations are obtained by engaging different sets of gears.
Clutch: The clutch is inserted between the engine and transmission, and permits the engine to be completely disconnected from the transmission when it is disengaged.
When engaged, it first slips a trifle, thus permitting the motion of the engine to be gradually imparted to the transmission and remaining portions of the machine, and consequently no , jerk occurs. The operation of the clutch is as follows : The gradual "take up" of the load is effected by friction between several disks. The driving disks are fastened to the flywheel by six studs.
The driven disks are keyed to the transmission through the clutch drum. When the clutch pedal is allowed to rise, the clutch springs are permitted to press on the clutch drum, thus pressing the disks together and therefore making a connection from the engine to the transmission drive shaft. Rear axle: The rotation from the transmission is reduced in speed and imparted to the rear wheels by the rear axle. The principal parts are, the worm, the worm wheel gear , the differential gears and pinions, and the rear axles as shown.
The worm is connected directly to the transmission, and, owing to the engagement of its threads with the teeth of the worm wheel, it causes the latter to rotate. The rotation of the worm wheel can be imparted to either of the rear wheels or to both, in any desired ratio, the parts effecting this result being the differential gears and pinions.
Thus it is possible to turn the tractor. Operating Instructions Always hitch to the draw-bar cap, never to the rear axle housing. To operate the tractor, proceed as follows: 1. Fill the radiator with as clean water as it is convenient to get.
Lubricate thoroughly see section on "lubrication" farther on. Fill the air washer with clean, fresh water until it runs out of the filler hole. Fill the fuel tanks with clean fuel that is free from water. For operation of the vaporizer, see page See that the gear shifter is in neutral position. Lift the spark lever on the dash to the third or fourth notch from the bottom.
Open the throttle under the steering wheel one-third of the way toward the driver. For more see the barrios book reprint the T model Ford, covers cars, trucks and tractors. To find the manual go to www. Piston stroke 5 in. Cubic capacity cu. Firing order. Special cast alloy crankshaft, statically and dynamically balanced, carried on 3 main bearings, 2 in.
Big end bearings, 2 in. Cast-iron pistons, with 3 compression and 1 oil control piston rings fitted above the piston pin. Side by side valves of special steel alloy. Industrial Tractor has high compression cylinder head for running on petrol. Low compression cylinder head for running on vapourizing oil. Lubrication: by splash system with oil circulation maintained by oil thrown off flywheel by centrifugal action.
Ducts lead oil to main bearings and timing gears. Use a good quality oil of S. Cooling System. Efficient cooling ensured: by vertical tube type radiator with very large reinforced tanks, in conjunction with ample water jackets round cylinder block and cylinder head, and four-bladed fan which draws 1, cu.
Water capacity, 10 gallons. A radiator blind is fitted at the bottom of the core so that a greater or lesser area is exposed. This permits a satisfactory. Water temperature gauge, mounted on the radiator, is visible to the operator and indicates the cooling water temperature. Ignition System. Manual advance and retard controlled by lever on dash. Controlled from dash. Optional on Industrial Tractor, which normally has throttle lever beneath steering wheel, directly connected to carburettor.
Fuel System. Tractors equipped to run on vapourizing oil have a one gallon auxiliary petrol tank inside the main one. Air Intake System. A gauze type of filter may be used when operating on petrol only.
Steering System. Ratio 17 to 1. All steering arms and rods are of heavy construction. Easily replaceable bushes are fitted to steering shaft and spindle bodies. Front Axle. It is mounted at the centre of the front of the engine on a trunnion. Heavy radius rods are fitted to take up thrust.
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