Since large incorporate energy saving in wireless networks . The authors drew the performance despite of the fact that most of the conclusion that PON consumes the least energy nodes are switched to sleep mode. The energy among all. Another study proposed the energy saving is compared with the state of the art management mechanism for EPONs where the existing algorithm. Similarly another schemes showed the improved performance as compared to other proposal of a new MAC layer by which an ONU is existing approaches. In the same way, the authors proposed the technique of clock and data recovery on the basis of I.
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Since large incorporate energy saving in wireless networks . The authors drew the performance despite of the fact that most of the conclusion that PON consumes the least energy nodes are switched to sleep mode. The energy among all. Another study proposed the energy saving is compared with the state of the art management mechanism for EPONs where the existing algorithm.
Similarly another schemes showed the improved performance as compared to other proposal of a new MAC layer by which an ONU is existing approaches. In the same way, the authors proposed the technique of clock and data recovery on the basis of I. In this study the authors also highlighted Communication Technologies ICT has increased the problems of ONU clock drift and downstream significantly with the consistent increase in the traffic traffic scheduling when the ONU enters sleep mode.
Due to this rapid growth in energy In  the authors gave the design scheme to consumption, lot of attention is focused towards minimize the number of active ONUs and an energy green ICT solutions. According to various aware routing algorithm is provided that uses the path estimations, electricity consumption of internet alone having least residual capacity for forwarding the in US is in billions of dollars .
Some work is also done on of worldwide electricity consumption . Most of the energy is consumed by saving framework for switching OLTs into power idle elements that exist in the network . So saving modes by taking multiple FiWi networks into reducing energy consumption of these idle elements account. To the best of our knowledge, no prior work would significantly reduce overall energy is done on reducing energy at both Optical and consumption of the ICT.
Access network comprises a Wireless part of FiWi networks collectively. In this major portion of the internet. If the energy consumption of the the FiWi networks. The proposed energy saving access network is reduced, it will result in the algorithm, referred to as Green FiWi GFiWi conservation of considerable amount of energy switches maximum number of nodes into sleep mode consumed by ICT.
A number of algorithms have where the Capacity and Delay Aware Routing already been reported in literature in order to improve algorithm  is exploited in order to route the traffic the energy efficiency in access networks.
Jones et al. Section II number of nodes in the wireless front end, due to consists of the proposed architecture, section III which majority of the nodes remain idle most of the consists of mechanism of greening the FiWi time particularly when the traffic is low in the networks, section IV consists of result and discussion network .
So this provides an opportunity to save and in section V we have given the conclusion. There are 18 networks. Proposed Architecture Since the shown in figure 1. These wireless routers are attached wireless part of FiWi contains number of wireless to the gateway routers which are then attached to routers, due to which traffic can be routed through Optical Network Units ONUs Optical Line multiple paths. In order to overcome the connectivity shown in Figure 2. The routers are switched to sleep mode, connectivity to deployment of LR-APs is particularly desirable to the end users can still be accomplished through these provide connectivity to the subscribers which are outdoor APs.
So apart from greening the FiWi, 3 the traffic must be routed through the best possible For better performance, capacities to the link must be path having least delay and maximum capacity in assigned in prior to the packet arrival. So if Ca is the order to avoid congestion and to have better capacity of any node a, capacity C on link ab can be throughput.
So if the flow and capacity on each link is known in advance, it is possible to estimate the delay on each link through link state advertisements, each node can disperse the flow and capacity information on its surrounding links to all other nodes, and each node can compute the shortest delay locally . The total delay of any link is the sum of transmission delay, slot-synchronization delay, queuing delay and propagation delay.
GFiWi switches maximum nodes both wireless and optical into sleep mode and routing the traffic through the least delay path. According to the GFiWi, the list of k least delay paths are created in delay increasing order.
Depending on the load, use minimum paths to route the traffic, while switching the nodes of the other paths having higher delays into sleep mode. The proposed algorithm also caters to the load balancing problem as well in a way that as soon as the load increases above certain threshold, it route the extra traffic to a new path. Algorithm II.
There is a slight increase in the delay of GFiWi as compared to CaDAR because of the reason that the connectivity is achieved with minimum number of nodes while switching maximum nodes into sleep mode. Another observation was that as the number of outgoing links from a node increased, the amount of capacity assigned to a node decreased. Also as the load on any particular node increased, the capacity assigned to other different nodes decreased. Figure 5 Figure 6: Energy Conservation in Gateway Routers and Figure 6 shows the amount of energy saved in wireless and gateways routers at both residential area and Campus area.
At high load time intervals i-e from to hours in campus the energy conservation is low as compared to low load profile at the time interval This is because of ensuring the connectivity of network during high load, lesser number of wireless and gateway routers are switched into sleep mode. GFiWi saves up to On average it saves up to Zhang, P. Chowdhry, M. Tornatore and B. Mukherjee, proposed algorithm at ONUs. BGW saves up Survey and Tutorials, vol. Jones, K. Sivalingam, P. Agrawal, and J.
Gupta and S. Vereecken, L. Deboosere, D. Colle, B. Vermeulen, M. Pickavet, B. Dhoedt, P. It  C. Lange and A. For example at time interval  Y.
Yan, S-W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S-H. Yen, D. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, and L. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Lee and A. Kantarci, M. Khair, H. Reaz, V. Ramamurthi, S. Sarkar, D. Ghosal, S. Dixit, and B. Simulation results showed that our Optical Communications and Networking, vol.
Mukherjee, and P. We showed that pp. GFiWi scheme introduces slightly greater delay than  L. It Applications, Wiley-Interscience, Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, S. Sarkar, and B. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. Sorin, K. Hinton, and R.
FiWi access networks
The level of provided quality-of-service QoS largely depends on the performance of the implemented routing and resource management algorithms, including bandwidth allocation and channel assignment algorithms with absolute or relative QoS assurances. Recently, the moving extended cell concept was proposed to provide connectivity for any possible direction [ 21 surrvey. An interesting approach to solve this problem is the use of an RoF network installed along the rail tracks in combination with the so-called moving cell concept [ 20 ]. In Section 3we review the state of the art of FiWi broadband access networks, while recent jetworks is described in Section 4. In FiWi networks, traffic may go from wireless end-users to the Internet or from one wireless client to another wireless client. One important aspect of QoS continuity across the optical-wireless interface of FiWi access networks is the appropriate mapping fiber-wirfless traffic classes of different optical and wireless broadband access technologies.
(WOS #02-Fiwi) Fiber-Wireless Access Networks