Grogul The stage hypnotist breaks every condition which would g. About as nonmystic a procedure as anyone could wish. Yet we must bear in mind that this use of hypnotic records has bypnosis definite limitations. Should he really have a vision of the cat, his actions will be characteristic.

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For example, we all have friends who walk in their sleep, in some cases performing eats of balancing on narrow balconies which would be impossible in the waking state. When they awaken, they have no knowledge of what has happened yet their bodies were certainly under control of some directing force.

Better as an illustration is the man who talks in his sleep. At times we can enter into conversation with him. If we are careful and know how to proceed, he will talk just as sanely and often far more frankly than when awake.

Yet when we do awaken him, his mind is a blank as to what has occurred. Again, it would appear that something must be guiding his thoughts during this period of conversation. We will call this "something" the unconscious mind, a very convenient name for our own ignorance, and a concept we will have to examine much more carefully in later pages.

This last example provides us with an excellent introduction to our subject, for the individual who talks in his sleep and answers questions is really hypnotized. In fact, this is one recognized method of producing the trance, namely by changing normal sleep into hypnotic sleep. The skilled hypnotist can generally take the sleep-walker or sleep-talker and shift him directly over into deep hypnotism without either the knowledge or the consent of his subject. Let us see what appears to happen in such a case.

When we are in the normal waking condition, the conscious mind is run ning the body. We act, talk, and think as we please, although such a statement implies "free will," a very controversial point which we will avoid in this book as of only theoretical interest. But in deep hypnotism this conscious mind of ours has been dethroned.

Our actions are now under the will of the operator who controls our activities and deals directly with the so-called unconscious mind. If he tells us there is a black dog standing by our chair, we will see the animal clearly and pet it.

We will hear a symphony orchestra at his suggestion and describe the pieces being rendered. He may suggest we are Abraham Lincoln and we will give his Gettysburg Address or he may tell us that we have absolutely no feeling in our jaws, that the dentist is about to pull a tooth and we will feel no pain. He may even throw the whole thing into the future, saying that tomorrow at four P.

So the first concept we get of hypnotism is that curious picture of an unconscious mind controlled by the conscious mind of the operator.

The subject will accept any suggestion the operator gives, within certain limits which we will consider in later pages. In fact, suggestion appears to be the key of hypnotism. It is the method by which the hypnotist first gains his control and unseats the normal conscious mind. After this, he finds that his only way of controlling the subject is again through suggestion, for the subject left to himself will generally do nothing at all. He acts and behaves as if in normal sleep.

This unconscious mind is much nearer the surface in some people than in others. While the average reader thinks of hypnotism only in terms of the deepest stage or somnambulism, there are actually many degrees of the trance. Only one person in every five has the unconscious so accessible that the conscious can be completely unseated and the operator deal directly with the unconscious.

Yet we find evidences of true hypnotic phenomena in almost everybody. Let us follow the procedure of the operator as he induces hypnosis. This will serve to show all these various states and at the same time illustrate one method of inducing hypnosis, the method most in favor with the psychologist, who prefers the quiet of his laboratory to the stage of the "professional. So, first of all, he has his subject seated comfortably in a chair or reclining on a couch.

Then he "talks sleep. Relax all your muscles and imagine that you are going into a deep sleep. Deeper and deeper. You will not wake up until I tell you, then you will wake up quietly and you will always feel fine as a result of these suggestions.

You are falling sound, sound asleep. Deeper and deeper, deeper and deeper. Your eyelids are locked tightly together. Your eyelids are locked tightly together and you cannot open your eyes no matter how hard you may try.

Your eyelids are locked tightly together and you cannot open them. You may try. I dare you! The subject is still wide "awake" in the sense that his conscious mind hears everything and remembers everything afterward. Yet for some reason or other he cannot get those eyes open, struggle as he will.

He seems to forget which muscles to use, and raises his eyebrows in hopeless efforts to succeed. The operator is getting his first control over the unconscious and this control we can see progressing in definite steps.

It is much easier, for example, to influence certain small muscle groups, say the eyes or the throat, than larger muscles as those in the arms or legs, while any attempt to get hallucinations-visions-at this stage would almost certainly fail. We will find that, on this first trial, roughly one half of the subjects cannot open the eyes, while this percentage improves as we repeat attempts at hypnosis.

In the long run, after, say a dozen trials, about ninety per cent of humanity will reach the stage when they cannot open their eyes. The remaining ten per cent will generally report that they feel rested, relaxed, or sleepy, but will deny any real effects. Probably this feeling of relaxation and general sleepiness should be considered as one of the hypnotic phenomena at this very early stage, but it is hard to demonstrate, whereas eye-closure is quite definite.

However, we must note that whereas the hypnotist can get this closing of the eyes in ninety per cent of humanity, this does not necessarily mean that he can go any farther with his suggestions.

He may and again he may not. That seems to depend almost entirely on the subject. There are many of these in whom it is easy to induce eye-closure, but quite impossible to get any tests which indicate a deeper stage of hypnotism. No matter how hard the hypnotist may try he can make no progress beyond this very elementary state and psychology is quite at a loss to explain why. Susceptibility to hypnosis seems to depend on certain personality traits which we do not know and cannot influence. Should the hypnotist succeed in this first test with the eyes, he may proceed at once to one which indicates a somewhat deeper state, such as stiffening of the arm.

He will end eyeclosure and continue somewhat as follows. Relax your eye muscles. They are returning to normal. You are sound, sound asleep and will not awaken until I tell you. Then you will awaken quietly and easily. Relax everything. I am now about to make another test. Your right arm is becoming stiff and rigid at your side. Stiff and rigid. The muscles are tightening up.

It is stiff and rigid as an iron bar. You cannot bend your right arm. It is impossible to bend your right arm. I dare you. He jerks the arm around with a curious sort of tremor and does his best, but his best produces no results. The arm remains stiff and rigid. Or he may meet the challenge quite successfully, relax his arm and open his eyes. In this case he has broken any influence we might have had. But even if he cannot bend his arm, this fact guarantees nothing as to his going deeper.

As in the case of eye-closure, he may be wide awake and remember everything perfectly after the seance. The suggestions of the hypnotist have been successful up to this point. Beyond it he may be quite unable to make further progress. If successful, another test is in order. Various operators will use different tests in different sequences but the idea is the same at this early stage, namely to involve larger and larger groups of muscles in these induced paralyses.

The next move might easily be something like this. First of all we must remove the effects of the previous test. So we say: "Relax, relax your right arm. It is returning to normal. Your right arm is resting quietly at your side and there is no strain whatsoever. You are sound, sound asleep. You are losing all control over your body. Your body is floating away and you can no longer control your muscles.

For example, it is quite impossible for you to stand up. You are stuck in your chair and it is quite impossible for you to stand erect. You may try but you cannot. He may pull himself together, even if the other tests have succeeded, open his eyes and stagger to his feet. On the other hand, he may make ineffective efforts to arise, then decide it is useless and relax in his chair.

Very frequently, when we dare the subject to open his eyes, bend his arm or stand up, he makes no effort whatsoever. He was feeling quite comfortable and wished to remain so.



Dagore So we may safely leave this aspect of our problem in the hands of the proper authorities, who are quite capable of handling it. Some people are so extremely susceptible to hypnotism that at times we get curious results even when using a victrola record. We will mention here g. The feebleminded are notoriously hard to hypnotize, as are also same classes of the insane, as the schizophrenics. We will see later that a subject can very easily be hypnotized against his will but that this again has nothing to do with will power on the part of the operator.


He had a group g. It has forced hypnotism back into the psychological laboratory where the psychologist, with a much greater range of interest than his medical compatriot, has been doing some very excellent work during the past twenty years. After each test, of course, he assures himself that everyone is wide awake. To be sure, some people turn out to be much more expert drivers than others, but there is certainly no mystery connected with driving the auto.



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